1. The “four seals” that distinguish the [Buddhist] view are as follows: all composed phenomena are impermanent, all contaminated things are miserable, all phenomena are selfless, and nirvana is peace.
2. Buddhist meditation serves as an antidote to all cyclic existence within the three realms.
3. Buddhist behavior is free from the two extremes, having abandoned both the extreme of overindulgence of desire, which is a case of being desirous and wanting good and great quantities of food and clothing, and the extreme of being too tired and worn out in body and mind.
4. The fruits are the true cessations, which are abandonments such that the obstruction that is removed does not arise again [and which comes about] through analyzing individually the nonexistence of the referent object of the conception of self.
These four [view, meditation, behavior, and fruit] are the distinguishing features of Buddhist doctrine.
From Buddhist Philosophy: Losang Gonchok’s Short Commentary to Jamyang Shayba’s Root Text on Tenets, by Daniel Cozort and Craig Preston, page 88.
Of Interest to Readers
This week we honor the anniversary of the parinirvana of Jamyang Shabya.