The Five Major and Five Minor Sciences
An excellent source on this topic is Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye's The Treasury of Knowledge - Book Six, Parts One and Two: Indo-Tibetan Classical Learning and Buddhist Phenomenology which goes into detail on these topics. The translator summarizes these as, "the range of general subjects that fall within the scope of Indo-Tibetan classical learning traditionally include the "five major sciences " of Sanskrit grammar, logic, fine arts, medicine, and Buddhist philosophy, along with a further group of "five minor sciences "-astrology, poetics, prosody, lexicography or synonymics, and dramaturgy"
Valid Cognition (Pramana)
Dharmakīrti’s The Seven Treatises on Valid Cognition (Pramāṇavārttika, Pramāṇavārttika, Nyāyabindu, Hetubindu, Saṃbandhaparīkṣā, Vādanyāya, Saṃtānāntarasiddhi)
The Seventh Karmapa Chödrak Gyamtso’s commentary on The Ascertainment of Valid Cognition (Pramāṇaviniścaya).
While there is not much in English on logic and valid cognition that is specifically Kagyu, The Treasury of Knowledge: Book Six, Part Three, Frameworks of Buddhist Philosophy discusses these topics in some detail.
John Dunne's Foundations of Dharmakirti's Philosophy is also a good resource.